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歡迎進入中國休閑研究網站

You Are Welcome to the Website of Chinese Leisure Studies

碎片化的世界:如何把握一個流動的社會

——2018年歐洲學術剪影

 

馬惠娣

 

歐洲,每年的夏季,學術集中綻放的季節——研討、對話、交流、反思、批判、質疑——每一個主題都那么銳利、鮮活、豐富——真可謂百花齊放,百家爭鳴。會議是一個很好的公共空間,既是烏托邦,也是異托邦;時間在這里終止,也在這里重新開始。是???/span>另類空間的一部分。

正因為如此,夏季各種主題和各種類型的會議、暑期學校、游學、旅行成為歐洲最絢麗的風景。

在各類會議訊息中,我與生活在流動的社會中Living in a Liquid Society我們正處在凝聚與分裂之間的社會變革中The Social Transformations We Live in: Between Cohesion and Fragmentation)兩個主題一見鐘情。

 

 

生活在流動的社會中,蒂米什瓦拉、羅馬尼亞

Living in a Liquid Society ,Timisoara, Romania

 

? 英國著名社會學家齊格蒙特·鮑曼曾出版過《流動的生活》和《流動的時代》等多部著述,指出當代社會是充滿變數、缺乏穩定性的生活,生活于流動的現代社會中的人們不得不應對諸多挑戰。而創造性毀滅是流動生活的時尚方式,伴隨人的是揮之不去的焦慮……。鮑曼從消費現象切入,對消費帶來的新社會關系的重構,對政治社會的消解進行了分析與批判。鮑曼被譽為當代最具原創思想的社會學家之一。

羅馬尼亞社會學學會第五屆國際會議選中生活在流動的社會中Living in a Liquid Society為大會主題,正是對齊格蒙特?鮑曼思想的回應。

 

生活在流動的社會開幕式

 

這次會議的宗旨:我們的生活正處在一個流動的社會中,高流動性與永久性正成為社會變革的互動關系模式,仍強而有力地配置在社會結構和社會制度中。堅實的現代性問題仍然伴隨著它在時間上的明確定義和穩定的價值觀,以其內在的可預測性去發現社會現實的深層含義。但是,流動的社會正在取代它,對現代性提出質疑,流動的社會正在改變傳統,尋找新的道路,不停探索替代方案。為了理解這種新的社會空間聚集形式,不僅需要新的方法論工具,而且需要放棄與當代流動性格格不入的某些心理模式。

那么,不久的將來世界會是什么樣子?更遙遠的未來呢?國家危機和意識形態危機能被克服嗎?社區的理念能被重新發現嗎?我們能概括人生知道什么是我們不想要的(而不是我們想要的)?我們準備好迎接新經濟了嗎?中期內移民的影響是什么?高技術化和超級鏈接會使我們的生活更多的社會化或是更孤僻?我們如何在流動的社會狀態中生存?這是通往一個新的社會范式的途徑,還是范式本身?對于這些問題,羅馬尼亞社會學學者們提出并思考??戳诉@些問題,不能不讓人怦然心動。

在我們的主觀理解中,羅馬尼亞屬于歐洲不發達的國家。但是他們的社會學家卻有著敏銳的洞察時代的意識。這也就不難理解在社會發展方面對于、節欲貪欲、有著不同的理解,以及不同的追求目標。

羅馬尼亞社會學協會第五屆國際會議2018914-15日蒂米什瓦拉西部大學(West University of Timisoara, Romania)舉行。來自全球約幾十個國家的學者300余人出席了會議。大家分別從不同的視角和學科背景,圍繞著生活在流動的社會中的主題發表了各自的見解。

大會會場邀請了倫敦學院大學戴維·沃斯教授主講了宗教的衰落,從對多國的調查中得出結論,認為宗教的衰落是全球性的現象,而歐洲的形勢尤其嚴峻。他通過數據統計得出結論說,社會經濟發展程度與宗教信仰并不平行。信仰指數高,意味著幸福感高。筆者注意到,在信仰指數的統計表中,菲律賓人的信仰指數最高。在提問環節,我問沃斯教授這是否意味著菲律賓人的幸福感最高,他并沒有給出一個清晰和確定的回答。

科隆大學赫爾曼·丟勒米爾教授主講了社會學調查方法,主要介紹了從變量群中提取共性因子的統計技術方法。

布達佩斯大學考斯瑪·如歌海尼絲教授主講:年齡算法,從心理學的視角觀察了老齡化社會的問題。

巴塞羅馬大學約瑟盧茲·莫麗納教授主講整體的,個人的還是自我中心的網絡?我們對個人網絡知多少?這為什么是一個問題?依據流動的社會這一概念,對整體的、個體的,以及以自我為中心的網絡做了分析,他主張個人網絡更適合于對新興社會結構的研究。

羅馬尼亞生活質量研究院研究員道哥丹·沃一庫主講了從雙重風險社會到非自由民主的道路——以東歐社會變遷為例,回顧了過去四五十年的社會變化。他認為,目前的情況可能看起來像是一種平衡,但會留下來嗎?還是會演變成一個不同的方向?他的答案是,現有的理論及其不斷創新的標簽可以有效地用于解釋現實世界。

會議還有十余個分議題研討。筆者參與了老齡化社會與流動的社會兩個分論壇的討論,并提交了相關論文和摘要。一篇題目為:流動的生活將把人帶向哪里?另一篇題目為中國老齡化社會的現狀與面對的挑戰。(詳細見附件)

蒂米什瓦拉是羅馬尼亞西部地區與塞爾維亞接壤的一個小城,說來交通并不便利,即使歐洲過來的人,大多不能直達,何況從其他洋洲過來的人,路上都是花了很長、很費周折地到達。我說這個問題的意思是,歐美人對學術的熱情是他們生活方式中的一部分,是建構社會體系的一部分,是他們旅行的目的,甚至不惜費盡周折。

在會場碰見了來自香港中文大學的日本留學生和來自比利時某大學的中國研究生,他們都是獲得了學校的資助前來參會。沒見到其他亞洲人的面孔。

蒂米什瓦拉是一個不錯的小城,老舊城區依然完整地被保留,一條河穿城而過,沿著河兩岸是市民休閑度假的場所。市中心標志性的建筑是東正教大教堂。我在這里正好趕上對警察與消防人員的圣戒活動,一睹大主教的神威,聆聽了他們演唱天籟般的天堂圣歌。這里也聚集了多所大學,文化底蘊相當醇厚。這里的人很質樸,也很善良,我在這里還結識了一位新女兒安得妮娜——在我乘錯車的時候,她一直把我送到酒店。我邀她到房間落座,我們交談了一個多小時。她的英語很好,管理學碩士研究生畢業,為了照顧曾長期撫養她的外公外婆她放棄了繼續求學的念頭。大會結束后的那個晚上,她陪伴我瀏覽了街心公園,欣賞了在那里舉行的演唱會,逛了小吃一條街。還告訴我那些極好的建筑都是吉普賽人在百年前買下的。

這些都是會議之外的收獲,因而也使得我的旅行體驗那么地豐富多彩。不僅收獲了學術思想,也體味到了一個城市和城市中的人的美好。

 

蒂米什瓦拉東正教大教堂的神父們

 

 

我們正處在凝聚與分裂之間的社會變革中

新戈里察(Nova Gorica),斯洛文尼亞

 

第二個會議:我們正處在凝聚與分裂之間的社會變革中The Social Transformations We Live in: Between Cohesion and Fragmentation),由歐洲社會學學會(RN26)和聯合國教科文組織斯洛文尼亞委員會社會變革項目管委會共同主辦,斯洛文尼亞新戈里察高級社會研究學院承辦。

新戈里察(Nova Gorica)位于斯洛文尼亞的西部,毗鄰意大利城市戈爾齊亞。參會人數不多,總共五十余人,分別來自歐洲十幾個國家。人雖不多,但參加討論的熱情很高、專注度也很高。

 

新戈爾察大會會場

 

會議的范圍和關注的問題是:我們目睹了我們生活的世界中矛盾和復雜的傾向,它在許多領域變得支離破碎。與此同時,全球市場化、跨國組織形式的不斷興起,以及超國家政治聯盟都暗示著統一與同質化。全球趨勢越來越使我們的世界相互聯系和相互依存。這些相互依賴性要求更大的協調、整合和凝聚力,但它們很難被認為是理所當然的。與此同時,政策議程的主導,扭曲了經濟互助的觀點,助長了不平等,并破壞了世界各地區的社會穩定。這不僅是社會不同部分之間巨大不平等現象的持續模式,而且是政治制度對遭受當前狀況之苦的人民的關切已無動于衷,這越來越令人沮喪。

我們是否生活在一個似乎相互排斥的時代?當第一個(排除)正迅速成為機械地訴諸的例行措施時,內部選擇就呈現出更多的慣性力量,這可能涉及社會生活和政治生活的許多方面,并引發許多問題。歐盟在言辭承諾的整合和現實世界行動之間一直處于停頓狀態,這表明,在大多數國家看來,政治仍然適當地存在于民族國家內部。大規模移民和相關的跨文化接觸可以產生富有成效和互利的跨文化做法;然而,它們可能被用來促進種族隔離、歧視、原教旨主義和極端主義。信息和數字革命在這里難道會成為社會整合或新的社會鴻溝的決定性因素嗎?人們如何團結?新出現的分歧是什么?個體化能被看作是凝聚力和團結的基礎嗎,亦或成為原子化分裂的一個因素?有哪些力量或思想能夠確保一個和平與繁榮的社會,并充分整合,使之充滿相互合作的精神?東歐和中歐地區的研究可以揭示什么樣的變化?它們究竟會導致凝聚力還是碎片化?還是兩者兼而有之?我們現在面臨基本矛盾是什么?會議希望介紹東西方社會、北半球或南半球,以更廣博的視角,通過個別案例研究,應用各種理論,包括定性、定量和混合的研究方法。

與會者們都操著不同口音的英語,聽起來十分費力。

有幸結識了英國開放大學藝術與社會科學學院環境地理學系高級講師皮特·克萊尼敦斯特博士,他作為大會主旨演講者,做了將人格尊嚴理念融入教育過程學術報告。他通過對加利福尼亞和斯洛文尼亞兩個調查案例說明,青少年在成長過程中接收人格尊嚴理念的教育對日后人生影響重大,學校發揮著重要作用。他在另一場報告中還講了自產時蔬home growth food)問題。會后與我談到:希望與中國學者共同進行這個方面的合作研究。他告訴我,已經對捷克、匈牙利、波蘭、克羅地亞做了問卷調查。他認為這個問題涉及到環境保護、靜悄悄地可持續發展(quiet sustainability),贊同日常物質環境主義everyday material environmentalism’,Schlosberg and Coles 2016)。我們在這些方面取得了共識,也初步達成了合作的意向。

還結識了來自在牛津大學讀書的華裔加拿大學生杰西·董,她用布魯諾·拉圖爾的行動者網絡理論,并通過對柏林難民游考察,探索了時空對難民的融合問題。說來,很專業,很深奧。也看得出年輕學子對社會學理論在實踐中運用的技巧和社會學學者洞察社會的能力。她是會場上唯一一個有亞裔面孔的女孩。在攀談中得知她出生在加拿大,父母均在九十年初移民加拿大,并給予她非常好的教育,現在在牛津大學讀書。遺憾的是她不會講中文,氣質、神態均西方化。她發言結束后我送給她四個英文詞:confident, natural, fluent and easiness(自信、自然、流暢、從容)??吹贸鰜硭艿搅藰O好的教育,包括家庭教育,以及嚴格的學術訓練,為之塑造出不同的人格魅力和行為舉止。

 

牛津大學杰西董在發言

 

有趣的是,我回到家不久,竟收到了來自她的父親寫來的郵件,告知我與他的女兒在會上相遇,并有一個愉快的交流。她的父親還饒有興趣地閱讀了我的網站(www.lilade.cn),并稱對休閑研究十分感興趣。他在郵件中寫到:隨意點開一篇‘2017歐洲游學雜記,一氣讀完(差點誤了上班時間)……,讀來非常享受,謝謝(說老實話,過去的30年中,接觸中文讀物不多)!

這些會場內、外的花絮很激蕩人心。無論是與皮特·克萊尼敦斯特博士的相遇,還是與杰西·董的相識,甚至延伸至與她父親的神交都充滿了美好。顯然,在碎片化的世界中,我們每個個體依然可以溝通友誼,相互團結,加強合作。??聫娬{的公共空間,其中的意義不就在此嗎!

新戈里察是斯洛文尼亞最年輕的城鎮,2017年它慶祝了第七十個生日。這是一個氣候溫和,常年綠樹成蔭,年輕、活潑,對來自世界各地的游客十分友好的小城。它與意大利的邊界城市戈爾齊亞相連,而且相互沒有設立邊界過境檢查,兩個城市在各個層面上都生活在巨大的共存中,這是歐洲獨特的例子。我在這里租到了自行車,雖然沒有帶護照,工作人員還是信任地把車租給了我。我騎著那輛紅色的自行車漫游了新戈里察全城;還穿越邊界到意大利一側的戈爾齊亞市,在那里的市中心的咖啡館喝了咖啡。

會議選擇在這里召開,別具了一番意味。在這里也意味著世界的凝聚還大有希望!

不得不介紹斯洛文尼亞新戈里察高級社會研究學院,雖然規模很小,名聲也不大,但是培養出不少專攻術業的博士。這里鼓勵思想創新,鼓勵另類或前沿選題。我與在這里讀博士的安德烈有一個交談,得知學術氛圍相當自由,課程設置多元。我說小的是美好的(舒馬赫)。大家都會心一笑,十分認同。

會議起源于古希臘的集會與公共演講,目的是發出不同的聲音,質疑權威的思想,尋求真理的答案。這個傳統在西方保持至今。每年到歐洲來分享,對人生、對事業、對生活都是一種難得的福分。

 

意大利與斯洛文尼亞的邊界

 

 

 

附錄:馬惠娣參會論文摘要

 

Share to session of ?EXPLORING AGEING AND OLD AGE IN CONTEMPORARY SOCIETIES,Dr. Adriana Teodorescu Babe?-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (adriana.teodorescu@gmail.com),Prof.univ.dr. Dan Chiribuc?, Babe?-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (danchiribuca@gmail.com)

 

Aging Society in China: Current Status and Challenges

Ma Huidi

Indeed, Ageing is an extremely diverse, complex and multi-layered process, especially in a liquid social context. It’s only 27 years for China to become an aging society. There are now nearly 250 million people aged over 60 in the country, and that aging population is expected to reach 300 million by 2025. The subsequent 20 years will be more rapid increase.

“Getting old before getting rich” is a prominent feature of today’s Chinese society, which brings all-round challenges to the country. The survey data shows

Among the households of people aged 65 and over, 150 million elderly people suffer from one or more diseases; 51 million are “empty-nesters”; 5.56% suffer from Alzheimer’s disease; more than 1 million families are lone families (elderly people whose only child died before them); more than 47 million are old widows and widowers; and 30.67 million are over 80 years of age, who are long-lived but not healthy.

The elderly population puts a tremendous burden on the Chinese family with the 4:2:1 structure (a unique family structure of four elderly people, a young couple and one child as a result of implementation of one-child policy), creating enormous economic and psychological pressures, then also conflicts with the traditional Chinese principles of “raising children to provide for old age.”

Different elderly groups have different lifestyles, and the common feature is that generally have more free time. But there is a serious shortage of public facilities for the elderly people in recreational activities, and the public services in rural areas are especially inadequate.?

There’s no doubt that the urgent and serious issues of the aging population in China are not only constraining the future economic development of the country, but also cause conflict with the traditional Chinese morals and ethics as well. Two possible solutions to the issue are: 1. the future economy must be tilted toward the aged industry, such as training of the medicare personnel, improving the home-living facilities, establishing community-based rehabilitation system, providing easy access for medical treatment, and balancing the urban and rural elderly care, etc.; 2. measures must be taken such as the establishment of the re-education system for the elderly, re-use of the skills of the relatively younger section of the population, reasonable split and exploitation of the leisure time, re-understanding of the values of the elderly, cultivation of independence awareness for the elderly, and development of healthy living styles. They should all be among top agendas of the government economic policies and development.

Based on demographic analysis, this paper will present the current status of the aging society in China and challenges. In addition, it deliberates on the traditional mode of thinking among elderly population and its negative influence and raises questions on the orientation of the contemporary public opinion propaganda by the media.?

Key wordsaging in China, recent status, challenges, questions

 

 

 

 

Session of  LIVING IN A LIQUID SOCIETY, LIVING IN TRANSNATIONAL SOCIAL FIELDS Living in a Liquid Society,14th – 15th,September 2018, West University of Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania

 

Where will the liquid life take us?

 

Ma Huidi

 

Abstract

?

The characteristic of a “liquid life” is a life in an uncertain and unstable environment, with no explicit destinations and no specific goals. It comes from multiple forces of social movements in modern society. With the advent of modernity, globalization and integration, the whole world is more and more shaped by rapid expansion of bureaucratic politics, bombardment of overwhelming knowledge and information, ever fading religious beliefs and traditional customs, paradox of increasingly intimate and distant human relationships, fragmentation of time and space, as well as intensifying social mobility. Industrialization, urbanization, bureaucracy, secularization, and elitism have become the bywords of the modern society. On one hand, technology explosion has facilitated the rapid growth and spread of new ideas and thoughts with stunning speed and volume, influencing and overtaking one another; on the other hand, the economy and the fate of the billions of the people in the world have fallen into the hands of oligarchs, political brokers and commercial monstrosities, who account for only one percent of the world’s population as a whole.

Facing this technology empire, people are easily bewildered, like a small boat adrift in a vast sea, knowing not whither to go. While anxiety and fear always loom over the human beings, “beautiful dreams” and opportunities keep popping up, tempting people to constantly seek illusory freedom and imaginary liberation.

Liquid life is a reflection of an objective reality that comes from enormous historical changes. It is a specific life experience that people must undergo on “absolutely modern” terms. At the same time, it is a way for people to savor and be conscious of the intricacies between time and space, self and others, as well as between possibilities & challenges.

Globalization and modernization has become an irreversible trend, with its crisscrossing currents and countercurrents of separation and cooperation, confrontation and reconciliation, confusion and trauma. From west to east, from modern to contemporary times, it spreads in a familial open concept fashion and in the process becomes the focal point of social and individual conflicts and confrontations on many levels.?

Years ago, in many of his books such as Liquid Life and Globalization: The Human Consequences, Zygmunt Bauman made thorough and meticulous observations on and analysis of the present state of the liquid life, voicing his concerns over the future of human beings, which resonated among intellectuals as well as led to debates. People are sympathetic towards his idealistic concepts of the genuine global obligations and the importance of giving up over owning, but question the solutions he has prescribed such as unity, law, regulations, order, and self-education, for they sound anemic and powerless, lacking concrete means of putting them to patn.

This article attempts to explore, against a Chinese background, crisis of humanity behind a seemingly prosperous society, gap between ideology and reality, big divide between intellectual thoughts and ideas and those of common folks, and conflicts between rule of law and rule by ethics. From the perspective of an intellectual, the article will try to answer the questions on the direction and consequences of the liquid life.

The following questions will also be raised: e.g. where will the future human life be? What kind of breakthroughs can we anticipate in terms of cognitive methodology? What contributions will scholars of the humanities be able to make?

 

Key wordsliquid life????? future directions?? seeking prescription?? probing methodology

 

 

 

 

 

The Social Transformations We Live in: Between Cohesion and Fragmentation”

September 20-22, 2018, Nova Gorica, Slovenia

 

“The Belt and Road” in the Fragmented World

 

Ma Huidi

 

Abstract

“The Belt and Road” (B&R) was the cooperation initiative of China’s President Xi Jinping’s “New Silk Road Economic Belt” and “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” in 2013. It aims at relying on the existing bilateral and multilateral mechanisms of China and other countries to carry out a form of regional cooperation or economic partnerships with countries along the route to jointly build a community of interests, common interests, community of political mutual trust, economic integration, cultural inclusion and responsibility community.

According to the Data provided by the Chinese Government: since the “Belt and Road” economic zone opened, have applied for accession by 71 countries and 3000 projects were approved. It has passed through 16 countries in Central and Eastern Europe by the end of 2017: (Poland, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia, Albania, Romania, Bulgaria and Macedonia). By the end of 2017, 3271 trains were running between China and Europe with 57 lines, and opening cities in China's domestic reached 35 starting stations, for connecting 34 European cities in 12 countries.

Would this "Cooperation Initiative" really achieve the purpose of win-win cooperation, economic mutual benefit, political mutual trust and cultural integration? As far as progress is concerned, the participating countries are full of expectations for economic mutual benefit. However, the suspicion, and even the voice of opposition, has also risen in some participating countries.

Therefore, as a scholar, we must rationally consider some problems, such as: how to assess the role of “B&R “in globalization and free trade? how to look upon the bridging effect of “B&R “on the fragmented world? how to improve the cooperative mechanism of "B&R "and so on. But what are the deep reasons for the fragmented world? And what force can be relied on to solve the fragmented world? This paper will explore these issues from an interdisciplinary perspective and also hope to learn from the insights of European scholars.

Key words: The Belt and Road, Cooperation and win-win, the deep reasons for the fragmented world

 

 

 
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